incorporates privacy as a resource in Kubernetes and shows how to schedule it

Machine learning (ML) models trained on personal data have been shown to leak information about users. Differential privacy (DP) enables model training with a guaranteed bound on this leakage. Each new model trained with DP increases the bound on data leakage and can be seen as consuming part of a global privacy budget that should not be exceeded. This budget is a scarce resource that must be carefully managed to maximize the number of successfully trained models.

PrivateKube is an extension to the popular Kubernetes datacenter orchestrator that adds privacy as a new type of resource to be managed alongside other traditional compute resources, such as CPU, GPU, and memory. The abstractions we design for the privacy resource mirror those defined by Kubernetes for traditional resources, but there are also major differences. For example, traditional compute resources are replenishable while privacy is not: a CPU can be regained after a model finishes execution while privacy budget cannot. This distinction forces a re-design of the scheduler. We developed Dominant Private Block Fairness (DPF) – a variant of the popular Dominant Resource Fairness (DRF) algorithm – that is geared toward the non-replenishable privacy resource but enjoys similar theoretical properties as DRF.

The design, implementation, and evaluation of PrivateKube and DPF are described in a paper published at OSDI 2021: Privacy Budget Scheduling. A local copy of this paper is available here. An extended version of this paper, with some details we omitted from the conference paper, is available on arXiv.

The PrivateKube repository contains the code we release as a reusable and extensible artifact of our research.



  1. Packing Privacy Budget Efficiently
    Pierre Tholoniat, Kelly Kostopoulou, Mosharaf Chowdhury, Asaf Cidon, Roxana Geambasu, Mathias Lécuyer, and Junfeng Yang


  1. Privacy Budget Scheduling
    Tao Luo, Mingen Pan, Pierre Tholoniat, Asaf Cidon, Roxana Geambasu, and Mathias Lécuyer
    In 15th USENIX Symposium on Operating Systems Design and Implementation, OSDI 2021, July 14-16, 2021, 2021